- The Economics of Ergonomics
- What to Look for in Technology Contracts
- Risk Management Tips for Technology Firms
- Transporting Tech Goods Requires Sound Navigation
- Super Stretch Technology and Software Service Providers Summary
- Technology and Software Service Providers Stretch Summary
- Top Reasons to Write High Tech with The Hartford
- Spectrum® with FailSafe® for Small Technology Businesses
- Fail Safe MEGA Technology Errors or Omissions Liability Coverage Form Claims Made and First Reported
- FailSafe MEGA Technology Coverage
- FailSafe Technology Liability
- Hartford’s FailSafe
Security Considerations that Can Prevent Claims Under Professional Liability (Errors & Omissions) and General Liability Insurance
Adopt as many of the following security elements as feasible:
- Security firewall
- Protocols meeting X.509 standards
- Secure remote dial-up or access
- Proxy servers
- Computerized intrusion detection
- Secure remote maintenance
- Mainframe data protocols
- Firewall tunneling
- Encryption devices
- Identification, authentication and integrity protocols
- Access restrictions
- Anti-virus scanning
- Load balancers
- Hot site
- Continuous monitoring of security alerts
- Procedures to address any suspected intrusion and/or respond to security alerts
- Reassessment of security vulnerabilities upon system or website changes, software upgrades, etc.
- Periodic security audits from third parties
- Storage of the data or content of others in an encrypted format
- Automated Security Scanner
- High-speed internet connections
- Password protection
Have a written and formalized systems and physical security policy statement.
Adopt formal employee guidelines to address systems and Internet usage.
Appoint a systems/physical security manager.
Adopt and test a formalized disaster recovery program.
Do NOT warrantee or guarantee that your service has no security vulnerabilities or that your service will prevent security breaches, denial of service attacks or the introduction of malicious code into the systems of others.Categories: Tech Articles and Information
Over the past several years we have seen an increasing trend of claims resulting from quality control problems. Below are some tips that will help your Professional Liability Insurance and General Liability Insurance underwriters feel more comfortable with your risk exposures:
- Implement the following elements for your quality control procedures as safeguards for your Professional Liability and General Liability claims.
- Alpha and Beta Testing
- Formal Customer Acceptance Procedure
- Prototype Development
- Statistical Process Control
- Vendor Verification Process
- Total Quality Management
- Written and Formalized Quality Control Program
- Customer Signature on Each Phase of Project
2. Comply with one or more widely accepted industry standards.
- UL/CSA – The Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) are independent non-profit organizations responsible for the writing, testing, and certification of product safety standards.
- ISO 9000 – A series of international standards that provides quality management guidance and identifies quality system elements.
- CE MARK – A visible declaration by the manufacturer (or his representative, importer, etc.) that marked equipment complies with all the requirements of all the applicable European Union (EU) directives.
- ANSI – The American National Standards Institute is a voluntary membership organization that develops national consensus standards for a wide variety of devices and procedures.
3. Perform pre-release/pre-dissemination testing to protect customers from malicious code and/or other security vulnerabilities in your services.
4. Have a document/contract retention plan for at least seven years.Categories: Tech Articles and Information
The party not in power assumes liabilities
Most tech companies enter into contracts with project owners or managers that specify the terms of the work, including which party is responsible when things go wrong.
The most common provisions that govern Professional Liability insurance (Errors and Omissions Liability insurance) and General Liability insurance risk factors and the transfer of risk in these contracts are known as Bodily Injury and Property Damage Indemnity, Pure Economic Loss Indemnity, Intellectual Property Indemnity, Breach of Privacy Indemnity, Consequential Damages and Limitation of Liability.
When these types of losses are specified in contractual provisions, they may or may not be covered by a tech company’s General Liability or Professional Liability insurance. It depends on the exact contractual language and the insurance policy language.
In most cases, a particular tech project will have one larger and more powerful company that will control the terms of the contract negotiation. This is known as the “party in power.” The party in power usually provides the contract form that is presented to the party not in power, who is then usually required to assume most of the potential liabilities. As a result, the party not in power is also the party that is assuming the liability under the terms of the contract.
The party not in power is typically a small one or two-man tech company performing work for a large company.
Strategies for the party not in power
All is not necessarily lost by the party that is assuming the liabilities. That party may be able to negotiate contract changes that can result in a more level playing field. The negotiating tips that are outlined in the sections below may be helpful.
Bodily Injury and Property Damage Indemnity
Most tech work performance contracts contain a general provision that requires the party not in power to indemnify and hold harmless the party in power against certain third-party claims and lawsuits where a third party ( such as an end user of the tech work) alleges that they have suffered damages. The purpose of an indemnification/hold harmless provision is that the indemnitor agrees to accept the specified liability as well as legal defense on behalf of the indemnitee.
The most common type of general indemnity agreement deals with responsibility for damages to a third party for bodily injury or property damage. Sometimes this provision can be too broad and heavy handed to protect the interests of the“party not in power.
- If the indemnification provision uses terms such as “any and all liability,” try to amend this to “bodily injury” and “property damage.” Limiting the indemnification in this way will eliminate responsibility for lawsuits involving breach of contract, intellectual property infringement and breach of privacy.
- Narrow the definition of property damage to exclude damage to “data.” It is important to note that the insurance industry has taken this approach under the most recent General Liability forms.
- Limit the indemnity for bodily injury and property damage arising directly from your conduct, and eliminate the term indirectly.
- Limit the indemnity to your n” acts, errors and omission instead of any acts errors or omissions.
- Limit the indemnity for bodily injury and property damage to “the extent caused by your negligence” or “in whole or in part caused by your negligence.”
- If you can’t negotiate the above-mentioned concessions, try to limit your total liability to whaT is covered by your General Liability and Professional Liability insurance policies. Or, if this approach is not successful, try to negotiate a monetary cap for damages, such as $100,000.
Pure Economic Loss Indemnity
Tech companies that are the party not in power often assume liabilities under-written indemnity provisions that make them responsible for liabilities that go way beyond bodily injury and property damage to a third party.
These additional types of damages are broadly referred to as pure economic loss damages. Many of these types of lawsuits involve causes of action for breach of warranty or breach of contract. These causes of action are typically excluded by most General Liability insurance policies but may be covered by Professional Liability insurance policies.
Attempt to limit liability to claims alleging bodily injury and property damage. If you are successful with this maneuver, you may have eliminated all of your indemnity risk for all other economic damages.
- Try to limit your total liability to that which is covered under your General Liability and Professional Liability insurance policies.
- If the above approach is not successful, try to negotiate a monetary cap for damages such as $100,000.
Intellectual Property Infringement Indemnity
Many tech work contracts contain an indemnity provision for intellectual property violations. Intellectual property violations include offenses such as copyright, patent, trademark, and trade name infringements.
- Try to remove any specific provisions dealing with intellectual property infringement indemnity.
- Limit the indemnity to not apply to situations where the intellectual property violation is caused solely by the other party or in whole or in part (the better outcome) by the other party.
- Limit the indemnity to not apply to situations where you are making a product to comply with the specifications required under the contract, where another party alters or modifies your product without authorization, or where another party co-mingles your product with another product.
- Limit the indemnity to patent infringement only. Furthermore, patent infringement may be limited to U.S. patents only, as opposed to patents in other countries.
Breach of Privacy Indemnity
Invasion of privacy and identity theft claims can arise out of tech work where a tech product or service fails, resulting in release of confidential information such as bank account numbers, credit card numbers, social security numbers, medical records, etc.
Many contracts for tech work contain a specific indemnification provision for these types of violations. In addition, more generalized indemnity provisions can capture these types of claims if the general indemnity provision is not limited to claims for bodily injury and property damage.
- Attempt to remove any specific provision dealing with breach of privacy indemnity from the contract.
- Limit the indemnity to not apply to situations where the breach of privacy is caused solely or in whole or in part (a better outcome) by the other party.
- Limit the indemnity to only apply to the extent covered by your General Liability or Professional Liability insurance.
- Place a monetary cap on the indemnity, such as $100,000.
Consequential Damages Waiver Clause
You should attempt to add a provision to your work contracts stating that you are not liable for any consequential damages arising out of the failure of your tech product or service or any other breach of contract or warranty. An example of consequential damages would be any loss of profits or extra expenses incurred by the other party over and above the actual failure of your tech product or service itself.
- Attempt to insert a consequential damages waiver clause into your tech work contract.
- Make sure that your consequential damages waiver clause is not overridden by the indemnity provisions.
- To the extent that you are not successful in negotiating the addition of this clause, try to limit your liability with a limitation of liability clause.
Limitation of Liability Clause
A limitation of liability clause is often found side by side with a consequential damages wavier clause in tech work contracts. While the consequential damages waiver clause eliminates certain liabilities, the limitation of liabilities clause limits liabilities to a certain monetary cap.
- Attempt to insert a limitation of liabilities clause into your tech work contract.
- Set the monetary cap to a sum of money that relates to the contract, such as a dollar amount to be paid for a one-time project or an annual amount to be paid for an ongoing project.
- Make sure that your limitation of liabilities clause is not overridden by the indemnity provisions.
Some of the above information comes from articles written by Michael Rossi and is available on www.irmi.com. These parts are reproduced with permission of the publisher, International Risk Management Institute, Inc., Dallas, Texas . Further reproduction prohibited. Visit www.irmi.com for free practical and reliable risk and insurance information.Categories: Tech Articles and Information
They might prevent you from getting General Liability Insurance
We have listed below end uses of tech products and services that most General Liability underwriters specializing in tech accounts consider a high risk of litigation. Unfortunately, high tech involves high risk, so it’s important for you to be fully aware of how your risk is viewed by insurance underwriters. Rejection is not clear-cut and there may be stipulations to specific instances.
Nevertheless, the core tenets behind declining the application would directly relate to what we have listed below.
- Environmental controls for heat, refrigeration, flame ignition or suppression
- Liquid level controls and pressure gauges
- Automated test equipment or process control equipment
- Manufacturing process/controls (robotics, factory automation, computer aided manufacturing)
- Critical parts of aircraft, autos, watercraft, trains, trucks or other transportation equipment or controls
- Athletic, medical or flotation equipment
- Safety or alarm equipment, systems, processes or parts (fire, security, emergency)
- Computer Aided Design (CAD) (This does not apply if you use CAD in designing computer systems It only applies when you sell CAD for use by your customers.)
- Scientific/weather (seismology, etc.)
- Utility/natural resource process (oil and gas, power, nuclear, waste disposal, etc.)
- Medical purposes (diagnostics, patient care, biotech, non-administrative)
This refers to medical/healthcare operations or equipment, not to associated business functions such as accounting, billing, appointment scheduling or general office management.
- Chemical processing
- Financial software (funds transfer, trading, financial modeling)
- Aerospace, aircraft
- Computer security system advice/product diagnostics, encryption, vulnerability assessments or penetration testing (This does not apply if you are merely systems integrator and install security system software manufactured by others. Example: firewall, anti-virus from Norton or McAfee.)
- Pollution, environmental testing and remediation
- Machinery/equipment control (control of operating/moving parts of machinery, equipment, toys or appliances)
- Military defense (weapons procurement, guidance systems, tracking, etc.)This refers to military/defense operations or applications (such as weapons procurement, ballistic missile technology) not to general office management such as general accounting or non-weapons, non-combat related procurement.
- Staffing for temporary employees who do not perform “tech related” services
- Gaming machines or programs
- Computer aided mapping servicesAdvances in both medical and digital technology have been taking place at lightning speed for the last 20 years or more. Generation X and the Millennials have no concept of life without the Internet, iPods, GPS navigation, DNA testing, laparoscopic and laser surgery, and alternative methods of conception.From your digital medical records and prescriptions to remote-controlled robotic surgeries, just about everything in medicine is enhanced by if not dependant on wireless technology.
Why Should I Get Health Insurance?
Broadly, there are two reasons to have health insurance:
- Health insurance supports you if you get sick
- Health insurance helps you avoid getting sick to begin with
Let’s look at each of these reasons in more detail:
Health Insurance as a Safety Net
It’s important to have health insurance as a safety net. If you unexpectedly get sick or injured, health insurance is there to help cover costs that you likely can’t afford to pay on your own.
Health care can be very expensive. It can be an enormous financial burden. Surgery, emergency care, prescription drugs, lab work, scans and examinations – these sorts of costs can add up very quickly. They can even be high enough to cause individuals to go bankrupt, or to turn down care that they need but can’t afford out-of-pocket.
The other reason it’s important to have health insurance is that it makes it easier for you to keep from getting sick in the first place.
Having health insurance makes it easier for you to access – that is, find and pay for – routine and preventive health care. This includes:
- Annual checkups
- Vaccinations (flu shots, MMR, etc.)
- Blood tests and lab work
- Scans and screenings
These all play a role in keeping you healthy, and diagnosing any illness you might have as soon as possible.
Will the insurance industry advance just as quickly?
So far, it hasn’t. Insurers currently focus on tangible medical products. But medical devices and smart technology, with particular regard to software and apps, are now nearly one in the same. Adding to the problem is the fact that product liability laws differ among jurisdictions.
The Food and Drug Administration is expected to release regulation recommendations addressing the merging worlds of medical and pseudo-medical devices. New regulations in this area will surely affect the health insurance in my state and any other.
Source:Graeme Newman, “Technical and Medical Device Convergence,” Insurance Journal. 24 Feb. 2014
If you have questions about this list of other end uses of product, give us a call at 800-622-7370. A Sadler insurance expert will be happy to answer our questions and discuss your unique insurance needs.Categories: Tech Articles and Information
Guidelines for the digital information age
The Professional Liability Insurance ( Errors and Omissions Insurance and General Liability Insurance) safeguards below that apply to your operations should be adopted to reduce and prevent claims against your company.
- Formalized intellectual property clearance procedures
- Acquisition of all the necessary rights, licenses, releases and consents applicable to content or services created or provided by you or by third parties
- New hire and independent contractor agreements, which include signed statements declaring that a previous employer’s or client’s trade secrets or other intellectual property will not be disseminated or used .
- Contractual acquisition of all rights (including electronic rights) to work done for you by third parties, including intellectual property rights, hold harmless and indemnification clauses which inure your benefit pertaining to that work
- Permission of sites you hyperlink to or frame
- All content and services prior to release or dissemination regardless of medium, including updates or changes to functionality of your website
- Referral and affiliate program agreements
- Content and services with respect to intellectual property laws in foreign jurisdictions where you provide services
- Licensing/Cross-licensing agreements
- Legal review and permission to use the trademark of others
General Liability Insurance Disclaimers
- On link to or frame
- On your website pertaining to any content made available or disseminated
Trademark searches for
- Your domain name
- Product/service designs, names and/or logos
- Other content
- Professional search firms
- Legal counsel
- Computerized database search
3 Don’ts of Professional Liability Insurance and General Liability Insurance
Advertise your services as superior to or use comparisons to the services of others without legal review performed prior to dissemination.
Never advertise that your product is similar to or a clone of services of others without a legal review performed prior to dissemination.
Implement a formal policy on action steps necessary to address complaints of inaccurate, defamatory, infringing or troublesome content on your website(s) or other content you responsibility for or have designedCategories: Tech Articles and Information